If it resembles weatherstrip adhesive (which in turn often resembles silicone gasket maker) and you can (with effort) peel or scrape bits of it off, then try a citrus based adhesive remover.
As you've mentioned, you have to find a way to let the remover soak on the goo for a few hours. If that black stuff is an adhesive, I doubt there is anything out there that will let you "wet and wipe" it off. But soaking will help break the grip of the adhesive to the surface, and then you can scrape it off (still takes some time and effort, but at least you see your work paying off.)
I like the citrus based removers for this, because 3M adhesive remover is much more volatile and evaporates much more quickly. I put the citrus adhesive remover on the goo then cover it with plastic food wrap. This keeps it in place for hours. The next day, take the wrap off and give it a go scraping it off. This is what I do when cleaning up for new weatherstrip seals.
But if the stuff is kind of hard to the touch, like dried putty, then the worst case scenario is that it was a urethane adhesive such as those used to glue in windscreens and other auto glass. Then it's not coming off without a grinder. If anyone gets frustrated with gluing weatherstripping or vinyls and resorts to urethane adhesive, you may well regret it down the road... unrelated word of warning.